CNC – Detailed Review
Numerical control (also computer numerical control, and commonly
called CNC) is the automated control of machining tools (such as drills,
lathes, mills and 3D printers) by means of a computer. A CNC machine
processes a piece of material (metal, plastic, wood, ceramic, or composite)
to meet specifications by following a coded programmed instruction and
without a manual operator directly controlling the machining operation.
A CNC machine is a motorized maneuverable tool and often a
motorized maneuverable platform, which are both controlled by a
computer, according to specific input instructions. Instructions are delivered
to a CNC machine in the form of a sequential program of machine control
instructions such as G-code and M-code, then executed.
CNC Types:
 Lathe CNC machine – Lathe CNC machines are defined by their
capability to turn materials during operation. They have less number of
axes than CNC milling machines, making them shorter and more
 Milling CNC machine – It is one of the most common types of CNC
machine, that have built-in tools for drilling and cutting. The materials
are located inside a milling CNC machine, after which the computer
will lead the tools to drill or cut them. Most of the CNC milling
machines are available in 3 to 6-axis configurations.
 Drilling CNC machine – The CNC drilling machine is typically applied for
mass production. Drilling machines, however, often have a
multi-function machining center that is occasionally mingled and
sometimes twisted. The greatest sink time for CNC drilling is with tool
changes, so for speed, the variation of hole diameter must be reduced.
 Grinding CNC machine – It is a precision performance tool that uses a
rotating wheel to cut metal away from the metal. Typically, CNC
grinding machines are used for camshafts, ball bearings, transmission
shafts, and other working pieces, which require an accurate and
correct finish.Numerous pieces made using a CNC grinding machine
are cylindrical
 Laser cutting CNC machine – The Laser-cutting CNC machines are
designed to cut through hard materials, although they use a laser to
perform this task instead of a plasma torch. Lasers offer a high degree
of accuracy, but they are not as effective as plasma torches.
 Plasma cutting CNC machine – A plasma cutting machine is defined as
it is a method that cuts by electrically conductive materials using an
accelerated stream of hot plasma. These types of CNC machine feature
a high-powered torch that’s capable to cut through rough materials
like metal.
 Electric discharge CNC machine – Electrical discharge has a transient
effect, meaning that it can degrade the elements from which it is
presented. The electric discharge CNC machines take advantage of this
by designing controlled sparks to reshape materials.
 Router CNC machine – The CNC router machine is works likewise to
other CNC machines such as lathe or milling. The principal difference is
that all of this carpenter works manually such as interior, door carving,
and exterior decoration, wood panels, signboards, wood frames,
molding, musical instruments, furniture, and more.
 CNC machine with automatic tool changes – Automatic tool changer
CNC machine is applied to develop the tool carrying capacity and
production rate of the machine. And also used to improve the
machine’s capacity to work with a number of tools. This type of CNC
machine changes the tool very quickly and easily handles and change
worn out or broken tools.
 5-axis CNC machine – The 5-Axis CNC machine is a machine with a total
of 5 axes. Originally, it has 3 axes (X, Y, and Z), the cutting operation of
any tool has done in 3 directions, but 2 additional axes were added (A,
B) which means there are 5 axes. This machine is used to produce
G-codes are used to command specific movements of the
machine, such as machine moves or drilling functions. The majority of
G-Code programs start with a percent (%) symbol on the first line, then
followed by an “O” with a numerical name for the program (i.e. “O0001”) on
the second line, then another percent (%) symbol on the last line of the
program. The format for a G-code is the letter G followed by two to three
M-codes are miscellaneous machine commands that do not command
axis motion. The format for an M-code is the letter M followed by two to
three digits; for example:M02
CNC milling tools perform a machining process similar to drilling
and cutting parts with incredible precision, and therefore leave no room for
human error. The process is an increasingly popular industrial solution since
it can accommodate detailed sizes and shapes of all kinds of material.
In industries the CNC machines are used for various machining
operations like shearing, flame or plasma cutting, punching, laser cutting,
forming, and welding and many other applications. To bring the plates to
their final shape CNC lasers and CNC plasma cutters are used commonly.
The accuracy of the CNC machine ensures consistent product
quality. The process is more precise than manual machining and can be
repeated in exactly the same manner over and over again. Increased
production speed and increased efficiency.

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